fx brokers banner
fx brokers banner
  • by Ulkar A
  • Jul 04, 2022
  • icon

ETF (Exchange Traded Fund) | All things to know about ETF


An exchange-traded fund (ETF) is a type of investment vehicle that holds assets like stocks, commodities, bonds, or foreign currency.

Throughout the trading day, an ETF is exchanged at varying values just like a stock. They frequently follow indices like the Nasdaq, the S&P 500, the Dow Jones, and the Russell 2000. Investors in these funds do not directly own the underlying investments; instead, they have an indirect claim and are entitled to a percentage of the earnings and residual value in the event that the fund is liquidated. Their ownership shares or interests can be easily acquired and sold on the secondary market.


How do Exchange Traded Funds work?

How do Exchange Traded Funds work?

During regular trading hours, buying and selling ETFs can be as simple as purchasing stock through a brokerage account. Like with a stock, you must decide on a specific number of shares to buy or sell when conducting an ETF order. For instance, if an ETF trades for $1000 per share and you want to purchase $1,0000 worth of it, you'll need to use the ETF's ticker symbol to place a buy order for 100 shares.

Types of ETFs

 Types of ETF

Index fund: Most ETFs are index funds that attempt to replicate the performance of a specific index. 

Stock ETF: A Security that tracks a particular set of equities, similar to an index

Bond ETF: Exchange Traded Funds that invest in bonds are known as bond ETFs

Commodity ETF: Invest in commodities, such as precious metals, agricultural products, or hydrocarbons

Currency ETF: Invests in a single currency or a basket of currencies.

Actively Managed ETF: An exchange-traded fund that has a manager or term making decisions on the underlying portfolio

Leveraged ETF: Leveraged ETFs attempt to archive returns that is more sensitive to market movements than non-leveraged ETFs traded fund

Inverse ETF: Inverse ETFs are designed to seek daily investment results that correspond to the inverse daily performance of their underlying index or benchmark.


Advantages and disadvantages of ETF 

Advantages of ETF

Cost-effectiveness: Compared to mutual funds, ETFs have substantially fewer administrative expenses to administer because they just follow an index rather than outperform it.

Passive Management: Since the goal of ETFs is to replicate the market, the fund manager just needs to make periodic adjustments to match a market index. In contrast to mutual funds, where the fund management regularly trades the stocks in the basket to outperform the market, this is a key distinction.

Low managerial risk: ETFs have lesser risks of organizational failures since they are passively managed and linked to a certain index. In this case, the investor does not have to always rely on the fund manager's expertise, as they would in a mutual fund, to make the best trading selections. 

Diversification: Compared to mutual funds, ETFs are a more affordable way to diversify a portfolio and get market exposure.

Liquidity: ETFs may be exchanged on the market exchange just like any other stock, but a significant distinction is that, unlike mutual funds, which trade at the end of the day, they can be traded intraday. If the market is volatile, that may be useful.

Tax-effectiveness: Because ETFs are passively managed and designed to mimic the market, their capital gains and income may not be sufficient to increase an investor's tax threshold.

No minimum investment: There is no required minimum investment to acquire ETFs, which may be used to monitor the performance of a market index.

Sector exposure: ETFs may track the performance of any particular sector, giving investors the chance to sample a piece of a sector they might want more access to in the future.

Disadvantages of ETFs

  • Due to the commissions connected with buying ETFs, they might not be cost-effective if you are using Dollar Cost Averaging or making repeated purchases over time. ETF commissions are normally the same as commissions for stock purchases.
  • If the ETF is a lightly traded issue or if the market is experiencing severe volatility, it could be challenging to sell an EFT when you want to or need to. When selling stocks, this is also accurate.
  • Some ETFs could not follow a well-known index, which could lead to increased expenses and risk.



Which is better: an ETF or mutual funds?

 Which is better: an ETF or mutual funds?

What is a mutual fund?

An investment instrument known as a mutual fund pools the funds of several participants to "mutually" purchase stocks, bonds, and other assets. Mutual funds are an easy approach to gaining wide exposure without having to continuously check on the performance of several different assets because the investments are professionally managed.

Are ETFs cheaper than mutual funds?

For numerous reasons, ETFs are less expensive than conventional mutual funds. To begin with, the majority of ETFs are index funds, and following an index naturally costs less than active management. Index-based ETFs, however, are more affordable than index-based mutual funds.


Differences between an ETF and a Mutual Fund

Mutual fundsExchange-Traded Fund (ETF)
Trading for mutual funds occurs at closing total asset value.Exchange-Exchanged Funds are traded throughout a trading day, and this is when their value fluctuates.
Operating costs for mutual funds fluctuate.Operating costs for ETFs are cheaper.
The majority of mutual funds have a set minimum costThere is no set minimum investment amount for ETFs
Compared to ETFs, mutual funds often have higher tax obligations.ETFs provide investors with tax advantages because of how they are established and redeemed.
Shares of mutual funds can only be purchased directly from the funds at the constant NAV price throughout the trading day.ETF can be bought and sold at any moment on the stock market at the going rate.
In contrast to ETFs, buying or selling mutual fund shares often entails no transaction fees.The bid-ask spread, which is an extra cost, is incurred while trading ETFs.
Comparing mutual funds to ETFs, liquidity is less.Since its liquidity is unrelated to its daily trading volume, ETFs have substantially higher liquidity. Liquidity of ETFs is correlated with that of the index's constituent equities.


What are the differences between ETFs and index funds?

What are the differences between ETFs and index funds? 

The fundamental distinction between index funds and exchange-traded funds (ETFs) is that whereas ETFs may be traded all day long, index funds can only be traded at the close of the trading day. ETFs could be more tax-efficient than most index funds and have lower minimum investment requirements.

Despite their differences, index funds and ETFs have many characteristics, such as diversification, minimal investment expenses, and impressive long-term returns.

The primary distinction between index funds and exchange-traded funds (ETFs) is that whereas ETFs may be purchased and sold at any time at the price determined at the end of the trading day, index funds cannot.

This problem doesn't pose a significant threat to long-term investors. The value of the investment in 20 years will probably not be much affected by buying or selling at noon or 4 p.m. ETFs, however, could be a better option if you're interested in intraday trading. Investors can still profit from diversity by trading them like equities.


Is ETFs trading better than stock trading?

While ETFs provide shares of several firms in a bundled bundle, stocks represent shares inside specific companies. Since ETFs aren't tied to any one firm, they might include companies from a certain sector or mimic an index, like the S&P 500, which includes equities from many sectors.

Though it's not always the case, the number of shares of each stock is often consistent. The number of shares per stock can be altered via stock buybacks, splits, and secondary offers, although these events don't occur as frequently as ETFs. 

The number of shares in each ETF is adjusted such that the share price is as near as feasible to the Net Asset Value (NAV).


Can ETFs make you rich?

How (and how much) you invest in ETFs will determine whether you can transform those earnings into millions of dollars before you retire. But by investing exclusively in ETFs, it is definitely feasible to retire a millionaire with the appropriate plan.